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Isasmelt/Ausmelt TSL Smelting Furnace
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    Iron Making and Ferroalloy Metallurgy
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Top Submerged Lance (TSL) technology was invented in 1970s by Isasmelt and further developed by Ausmelt. It is a modern copper smelting furnace, where burden, fuel, air and oxygen are charged directly to the bath, stirred and mixed intensely, and then matte and slag are produced. TSL technology features a wide range of suitable incoming burden & fuel, low CAPEX & OPEX, low impurity after smelting, high SO2 recovery and highly controllable process. It has therefore been applied by non-ferrous metallurgical treatment of nickel, lead, zinc and tin. Typically Isasmelt/Ausmelt furnace is connected with electrical settling furnace or electric slag cleaning furnace for further processing such as clarification and separation, before the matte goes further to the converting process.
Ausmelt converting process is developed based on the original Ausmelt smelting process, where the same furnace is used to turn copper matte into blister.
The lining's wearing condition of Isasmelt/Ausmelt furnace includes the erosion caused by intensely agitated molten matte & slag, infiltration of low-viscosity matte & slag, and the corrosion & erosion of the off-gas & slag carry-over. High-grade refractory products need to be applied.
For the furnace roof, corrosion and erosion of slag carryover and off-gas is the main wearing factor. Magnesia-chrome forming refractory castable (UR6457C) is recommended for this part.
The furnace sidewall undergoes strong erosion, corrosion and infiltration caused by intensely agitated low-viscosity molten matte and slag. Semi-rebonded magnesia-chrome brick (FB6457BS) or rebonded magnesia-chrome brick is recommended for lining at the liquid surface and areas below it; for areas above it, direct-bonded (FB6457BD) or semi-rebonded (FB6457BS) one is recommended.
Recommended refractory concept for bottom consists of, from top to down, rebonded or semi-rebonded magnesia-chrome brick (FB6457BS/FB6457BS), magnesia-chrome ramming mix (UR6457R), and insulating chamotte brick (IB8057C). The brickwork should be laid in counter-arch shape.
Yanmu's recommended refractory usage in TSL smelting furnace is summarized in the following table. For further products information please refer to previous chapter “Refractory Products Collection for Non-Ferrous Metallurgy”.