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P-S Converter
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    Iron Making and Ferroalloy Metallurgy
    Steel Making
    Secondary Refining of Steel
    Continuous Casting & Tundish
    Non-ferrous Metallurgy
    Cement Kiln and Glass Kiln
    Refractory Raw Material
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Invented in 1900s by Peirce and Smith, PS-converter is a traditional furnace for copper and nickel converting. Its operation pattern is batch-wise. During one production cycle the copper (nickel) matte is charged from mouth into bath, where air is blown from the tuyere and converts the copper matte into blister through oxidation. At end of a production cycle blister and slag are tapped out though mouth.
In P-S operation the tuyere and the area around it undergo the most serious wearing due to the erosion of intensively agitated molten burden. So premium rebonded or semi-rebonded magnesia-chrome bricks (FB6457BR or FB6457BS), at best those with salt impregnation pretreatment, are highly recommended in this area. Normally, the tuyere holes are drilled in the bricks, before it is installed in the lining.
Mouth is the second most wearing part next to tuyere, since it is where charging, off-gas out-venting, and slag discharging take place. For lower part semi-rebonded magnesia-chrome brick (FB6457BS) is recommended, for the upper part the direct-bonded magnesia-chrome brick (FB6457BD)
For end wall and barrel lining, direct-bonded magnesia-chrome brick (FB6457BD) is recommended.
Yanmu's recommended refractory usage in P-S converter is summarized in the following table. For further products information please refer to previous chapter “Refractory Products Collection for Non-Ferrous Metallurgy”.