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TBRC /Kaldo
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    Iron Making and Ferroalloy Metallurgy
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    Secondary Refining of Steel
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    Non-ferrous Metallurgy
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Kaldo furnace was invented in 1950s in Sweden and was originally designed for steel making. However, it seems to find more and increasing application in smelting and refining of non-ferrous metal, where it is known as the “top-blown rotary converter”. 
As its name suggests, oxygen is blown from a lance on top of the molten burden and the barrel is rotating about its horizontal axis constantly during the operation. The advantage of this smelting process are among all a more homogeneous heat distribution & an accelerated reaction speed due to the constant rotation, high operation efficiency (e.g. copper smelting and converting can be done in one single furnace) & high thermal efficiency due to the usage of oxygen, long service life of lance, and high density of SO2 in off-gas as by-product. Therefore, it has a wide range of application in non-ferrous industry including smelting and converting of copper, smelting lead & tin concentrate, processing the slag from copper converter, processing of high lead & tin containing dust during copper smelting and copper recycling etc.
Wearing condition of Kaldo converter resembles that in Ausmelt furnace. However, the fact need to be taken into account by refractory-lining design that the barrel is rotating during operation.
Yanmu's recommended refractory usage in Kaldo furnace is summarized in the following table. For further products information please refer to previous chapter “Refractory Products Collection for Non-Ferrous Metallurgy”.